The Inquisition in the New World
By Clara Steinberg-Spitz
With the exception of Brazil and the northeast coastal region of South America, all of that continent as well as Central
America, Mexico, and some of the Caribbean islands were part of the Spanish colonial empire from 1492 to the 1820s.
The colonial New World history is a sequel to events in the Iberian Peninsula beginning in the late decades of the
fifteenth century. The establishment of the Holy Office of the Inquisition in Spain in 1478, the expulsion of the Jews
from Spain in 1492, and the admission of almost 100,000 Spanish Jews into Portugal are backdrops to the colonial
In the present essay I will deal with the establishment of the Inquisition in the New World, an event that was mainly a
consequence of those that took place in the Iberian Peninsula. I include a brief review on the origins of the Inquisition in
Spain and Portugal, the Spanish territories in the New World, and the arrival of the Jews to the newly discovered lands.
HISTORICAL ORIGINS OF THE SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE INQUISITION
>From the early days of the Catholic Church, its bishops had the right of inquisition (the right to inquire) on matters of
faith and morals. Bishops had the power to try heretics for matters of faith. Their authority included the power to
administer capital punishment to heretics, excommunicate and conduct autos de fé. The Church had taken the position
that "once a Catholic, always a Catholic". One could convert to Catholicism, but once a member of the faith it was
forbidden to leave the fold.
Shortly before the Albigensian Crusades (1212-1220) Pope Innocent III delegated three Cistercian monks to go to Tolouse
and take action against the heretics in Aix, Arles, Narbonne, and the neighboring dioceses. Their actions led to the creation
of the title of "Inquisitors of the Faith." The Inquisition as an instrument to investigate heresies and to protect faith existed
for a considerable time before Pope Gregory IX (1227-1242) formalized it. Pope Paul III in 1549 instituted the Supreme
Tribunal, an Episcopal tribunal, composed of six cardinals or "Inquisitors General" who directed the institution from
headquarters in Rome. Prior to this, the pope himself presided over the (apostolic) tribunal of the Holy Office of the
Apostolic inquisitors were bishops or other appointees of the pope; they could come from any rank or any monastic
orders, but usually Franciscans or Dominicans served as apostolic inquisitors.
An apostolic Inquisition, with Dominican and Franciscan inquisitors, existed in parts of the Iberian Peninsula prior to
the reign of the Catholic majesties, Ferdinand and Isabella. These inquisitors did not operate in the kingdoms of Castile
and León until the request of the Catholic majesties.
Ferdinand and Isabella sought a homogeneous population, one possessing one religion and culture. In order to achieve
homogeneity, Ferdinand and Isabella felt that they had to eradicate two groups from their lands: Judaizantes ( this term
refers to those who observed or professed the Jewish faith; it is used as a synonym of Jews) and Moriscos (Moors). They
were considered heretics and regarded as a discordant element in their kingdoms.
Under the prompting of Isabella's confessor, Tomás de Torquemada, grandson of a Jewess, the Catholic majesties requested
Pope Sixtus IV to establish the Holy Office in their kingdoms. The pope complied with the request in 1478, but withdrew his
permission when he heard of the abuses that were occurring in Spain. He reinstated it in 1480 on receipt of a sizable
contribution for his other activities. In 1484 Torquemada became the first "Inquisidor General" in Spain.
The Holy Office of the Inquisition was established in Portugal in 1536. It did not come into complete control of the Jews in
Lusitania until 1547. In the decades prior to 1547 Jews and conversos (converts) and "New Christians" fought for their lives
and the privilege of leaving Portugal at first with and ultimately without their possessions.
In 1580 Philip II took over the Portuguese throne. Spain ruled Portugal until 1640, when Portugal regained its
sovereignty. Although the Portuguese and Spanish Inquisitions operated independently, for many years after 1580 the
Spanish inquisitors officiated in Lisbon because the Spaniards considered the Portuguese too lenient in their treatment of
Jews, Moors, and other heretics. Jews residing in Portugal accurately anticipated the arrival of Spanish inquisitors to
Portugal, and in 1580-1581 many Jews crossed the border into Spain. Many others wended their way to the New World.
Although the Spanish Inquisition has achieved the greatest historical notoriety, the Portuguese institution was regarded as
being more rigorous and cruel. The Portuguese inquisitors were sadly known as "devours of human flesh."
SPANISH TERRITORIES IN THE NEW WORLD
The Spanish throne divided its New World colonies into viceroyalties. The first division took place early in the sixteenth
century. New Spain, with Mexico as its capital, and New Castile or Peru, with Lima as capital, were the two first
viceroyalties formed. New Spain consisted of what is now southwestern United States, all of Mexico and Central America,
and the Spanish islands in the Caribbean (Santo Domingo, Puerto Rico, Cuba) and in the Far East (Philippines). Peru
encompassed almost all of South America, except for Brazil and the Guineas. The viceroyalty of New Granada, with
Cartagena as its capital, was formed in 1610, consisting of what are now Venezuela, Colombia, Panama and part of
Ecuador. Rio de la Plata was formed in 1776 of territories of today's Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, with Buenos
Aires as the capital of the viceroyalty.
JEWS IN THE NEW WORLD
The Jews played some part in the discovery of America. Their expulsion meant that the aristocracy, having eliminated its
richest competitors, was now free to extend its regime to the New World. And this is in fact what happened.
Many historians have speculated that Christopher Columbus was a Jew. Today, however, most scholars prefer to focus
on the overwhelming, thoroughly documented role of Jews in Columbus's voyages of discovery. Jews were present in
Hispaniola (now Santo Domingo and Haiti) and other Caribbean islands as early as 1495. There were at least six
conversos with Columbus on his first voyage, among them Luis de Torres, regarded as an interpreter due to his vast
knowledge of "oriental" languages. Some Jewish soldiers went with Narváez in 1519 to capture Cortés in Mexico;
Narváez was defeated and his troops joined Cortés, who completed the conquest of the Aztecs in 1521, beginning the
Spanish colonization in the New World.
According to Howard M. Sachar it is a fact of history that Columbus's four voyages achieved only a precarious foothold
in the New World. Another half-century of exploration and conquest was required for others to secure Spain's vast
empire, and to structure it into three viceroyalties: New Spain, New Castile, and New Granada. Colonization in those
days took precedence over trade as an imperial objective. To foster settlement in the new territories the Crown offered the
inducement of great landed encomiendas to loyal soldiers and farmers.
Spain barred all Jews and their descendants to the fourth generation form coming to the New World. The constraints of
limpieza de sangre (purity of blood), meaning that all ancestors to the fourth generation were Old Catholics, excluded
New Christians from these ventures, or even from settlement in Spanish America. Yet many conversos found ways to
migrate to the New World. Permits of exemption were easily bought from corrupt officials, and for the right price, ship
captains disembarked New Christians at secret inlets along the Gulf of Mexico south of Veracruz, or on the Honduran
coast. Portuguese Jews often served as sailors on the ships that smuggled Jews into the New World.
Once the Spanish throne assumed rule over Portugal in 1580 the infiltration of converts to the new hemisphere greatly
increased. The transmigration of Portuguese New Christians to the Americas is known as the penetración portuguesa,
the Portuguese penetration. This process was facilitated by Felipe III's Royal Pardon of 1601, and PopeClement VIII's
Papal Pardon three years later. These pardons were obtained through massive bribes. In the early seventeenth century,
between 3 and 5 thousand Portuguese New Christians departed for the New World; of those, approximately two thousand
settled in New Spain, in the cities of Mexico City, Guadalajara, Veracruz, Puebla, and Guatemala City. In New Castile
another two thousand New Christians settled in Lima, Potosí, Tucumán, and Córdoba. By the 1630s conversos lived in
almost every town in the Spanish Empire; some migrated as far as New Mexico and Florida.
The Jews in the Spanish New World were known as crypto-Jews; hebreo cristianos (Hebrew Christians); conversos
(converts); nuevos-cristianos (New Christians); and Portuguese. The word "marrano" (pig) was never used by Holy
Office officials in the New World. Spanish and Portuguese Jews intermarried in Portugal. The term "Portuguese Jews"
was used by the inquisitors in the New World after 1528 for all Jews - even in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries-
despite the fact that many had been born in Spain decades after the expulsion.
THE INQUISITION IN THE NEW WORLD : ESTABLISHMENT OF THE HOLY OFFICE IN THE NEW WORLD
According to Liebman, as early as 1508, bishops in Havana and Puerto Rico informed Madrid that the New World was
being filled with hebreo cristianos (Hebrew Christians), nuevo cristianos (New Christians), conversos (converts),
Moriscos (Moors), and other heretics, in spite of several decrees barring their entry. Silvio Zavala wrote: "The Holy
Office in Spanish America persecuted the apostates, Moriscos, Jews, Protestants and, in general, heretics. It manifested
in America the same intransigency that had characterized the religious life of the Peninsula since the beginning of the
Due to the shortage of secular clergy in the New World, the pope issued the Bull Omnimoda in 1522, and granted special
permission to the prelates of the monastic orders in the New World to perform, in the absence of bishops in the vicinity, all
Episcopal functions except ordination. Torquemada's organizational and administrative abilities, and his zeal for the
preservation of the faith set the course of the Spanish Inquisition for the 341 years of its existence. As the activities of the
Holy Office expanded, it became necessary to establish branches throughout Spain and the New World with the Suprema as
the head office.
The need of a tribunal of the Holy Office in Mexico was expressed as early as 1532. In fact, the first auto de fé in Mexico
was held in October 1528, with Fray Vicente de Santa Maria presiding. Two Jews were burned at the stake, and two
others were reconciled.
On January 25, 1569, Philip II decreed the establishment of the first two formal Dominican tribunals in the New World,
one for New Spain (Mexico) and one for Peru. They were known by the full title of "El Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la
Inquisición". The Mexican branch included all of the audiencias of Mexico, Guatemala, New Galicia, and the
The tribunal at Cartagena was not established until 1610. Prior to that all prisoners south of New Spain were sent to
Lima, Peru, for trial. The Cartagena tribunal had jurisdiction over a vast area, including the bishopries of Cartagena,
Panama, Santa Marta, Puerto Rico, Popayan, Venezuela, and Santiago de Cuba. There were many Jews in Cartagena
and its vicinity, and they were quite visible; but according to Seymour B. Liebman, the Holy Office was more involved in
disputes among the inquisitors than in persecuting heretics and Jews. The sixty-three procesos of Jews before the
tribunal in Cartagena indicate that all were born in Portugal; nine of them were tortured and only one was sentenced to
serve in the galleys sailing between Puerto Bello and Spain.
Even though the Holy Office was established in Portugal in 1536, there never was a tribunal in Portuguese Brazil.
Brazilian prisoners were tried in Portugal.
Each viceroyalty was expected to give the tribunals of the Holy Office complete cooperation. The tribunals were
autonomous institutions independent of secular authority. The Holy Office was free of the control of the King.
COMMON PRACTICES OF THE INQUISITION
Seymour B. Liebman states that the social contacts between the Jews and their Christian neighbors in America during the
colonial era were not marred by the religious intolerance of the Spanish Church symbolized by the Holy Office of the
Inquisition. Many Catholics knew that their neighbors and friends were Jews, but they neither reported this to the
Inquisition nor mentioned it to their confessors.
Periodically, an Edict of Faith or Edict of Grace was nailed to church doors in most towns. These edicts listed the
customs of Jews, Moors, and later, Lutherans, so that people could recognize the heretics and denounce them to the
Torture was less frequent than is popularly believed; it never occurred at an early stage of the proceedings, and it was
administered only when, after several warnings an opportunities to confess, the prisoner insisted on his innocence, refusing
to admit the truth --according, obviously, to the inquisitors definition of truth-- or to reveal the names of other guilty of
observing the Jewish rituals.
The most common form of torture in the New World was the potro, a bedlike frame with straps from side to side upon
which the prisoner was placed, naked. The prisoner's limbs were strapped with leather bands, and tightened by the turns
of a wheel, causing excruciating pain. Often, a prisoner would confess after the first turn of the wheel.
Another form of torture was administered by placing a silk scarf in the prisoner's mouth and then pouring huge quantities
of water into his mouth; the prisoner's stomach became distended and unbearably painful.
All persons not sentenced to the stake were to be reconciliado (reconciled), and taken back into the bosom of the Church.
Their property was confiscated, they were required to wear a sanbenito and perform certain spiritual penance (fasting,
attending mass, counting the rosary, etc.). Reconciliados also received various sentences, ranging from mild punishment
to lashes, to scourge, or consignment to serve as oarsman on the galleys between New Spain and Spain, or between
Acapulco and the Philippines.
The sanbenito, a corrupt form of the words saco bendito (holly sac), was a penitential garment; it was usually yellow, with
one o two diagonal crosses imposed on it; penitents were condemned to wear it as a mark of infamy for lengths of time
varying from a few months to life. Those who were to be relaxed at an auto de fé had to wear a black sanbenito on which
flames or demons were painted.
Women were usually sentenced to serve without pay in hospitals or houses of correction. A few were assigned as servants
in monasteries. Just like men, women were often sentenced to be lashed. Death sentence was never administered by the
Holy Office. The brazo secular (secular authorities) was responsible for reading the death penalty, and also for igniting
the pyre at the stake.
The auto de fé, or act of faith, was intended to be an enactment of the Last Day of Judgment. Its primary role was to
serve as an example to the recently converted Indians and strike terror into the Hebrews. Punishment, from the
Inquisition's point of view, was a penance. The tribunal devoted its efforts not merely to finding its victims guilty, but to
extracting penitential confessions from them. An auto de fé was a public expression of penance for sin and hatred for
heresy. The solemn mood of penance and piety that prevailed during the autos de fé was responsible for many last minute
conversion of stubborn heretics.
The ultimate penalty was the stake. Two groups of people qualified for the stake: unrepentant heretics and relapsed
heretics (those who after being pardoned a first serious offense, repeated the offense thus considered to have "relapsed
into heresy"). A person who was burned at the stake for being convicted as a heretic was called relajado (relaxed).
THE FAMILY CARVAJAL
"O, mal haya el tribunal del Santo Oficio qui se no hubiera en este reino, yo contara los cristianos por estos dedos".
Luis de Carvajal "El Mozo" , 1596
The story of the Carvajal family, especially that of Luis el Mozo, is found in detail in several books. This family and about
thirty other Jews introduced a new type of Jewish family -- one which observed Jewish rites. From their seeds stemmed
three communities in Mexico City, and others in Puebla, Veracruz and Guadalajara.
In March 1589, Luis de Carvajal y de la Cueva, known as "el Conquistador", governor of the New Kingdom of León in
northern Mexico, was arrested at the behest of the Inquisition and by personal order of the viceroy of New Spain. Carvajal
and his wife Guiomar were of partial New Christian descent.
Personally, Carvajal was the devoutest of Catholics. As a young man he had even studied for a short period of time in a
seminary. Unknown to him, his wife was a secret Jewess; his sister Francisca and her husband, Francisco Rodríguez de
Matos, both of whom he had brought to Mexico, were committed judaizers. So were eight of their nine children, and
most of their nephews and nieces. The only exception was a son, Gaspar de Matos, who became a Dominican priest, and
was unaware of his family's true faith until 1589. Upon the death of their father, most of the Rodríguez de Matos family
adopted the name of their illustrious uncle, Carvajal.
In 1589 the judaizing activities of an older daughter, Isabel, became too flagrant to be ignored. She was arrested, and
within the next two days the Inquisition had arrested the rest of the family, including the governor himself. Of the sons
and daughters living at home, only two eluded capture. The governor's sister, Doña Francisca, was savagely tortured
and soon confessed to everything the Inquisition accused her of, implicating all her children, nieces, nephews, and in-
laws. Most of the others collapsed under torture or terror, including the entirely innocent priest, Fray Gaspar.
In early 1590, after months of imprisonment, the third son, Luis de Carvajal, -- a namesake of his famous uncle and
known as "El Mozo" (the Younger) -- emerged as a spiritual leader of the family. In his cell, he performed the
circumcision on himself using an old pair of scissors, affirming his loyalty to Judaism; from then on, no torture could
shake his commitment. While admitting his own Judaism, he refused to implicate other family members.
In an auto de fé in February of 1590 a posthumous punishment was imposed on the late Don Francisco, whose remains
were exhumed and publicly burned.
There were forty five Jews in the auto de fé of December 8, 1596 in Mexico City. Nine Jews were burned, five of them
females. Luis, his mother, and his sisters Leonor, Isabel, and Catalina, were burned at the stake; Doña Francisca and
her daughters agreed to embrace the church and were "mercifully" garroted, and only their corpses were burned. Luis
spurned reconciliation and was burned alive.
Another sister, Marianne, was declared insane by the inquisitors, but by 1601 she was presumed to have regained her
sanity, and she met her faith in the auto of March 21, 1601. The youngest sister, Ana, affectionaly called, Anica, was
released because she was a child, and consigned as a penitent to the custody of a Catholic family. Later she married a
secret Jew, and bore four children. She is known as Ana de León "the Saint". She died in an Inquisition cell in 1647
and her bones were disinterred and burned in the auto de fé of 1649.
Luis' brothers Baltazar and Miguel escaped. One became a physician in Venice and the other a chief rabbi in Salonica.
It was Governor Luis de Carvajal himself who endured, perhaps, the most traumatic sentence of all. Found guilty of
"abetting and protecting" judaizers, he was stripped of his office and estate, condemned to six years in exile from New Spain,
then remanded to his cell for transport back to Spain. Four months into his imprisonment, still awaiting transfer to the
homeland, he perished of undetermined causes.
LA COMPLICIDAD GRANDE IN PERU
Encouraged by the Royal Pardon, during the early 1600s many Sephardim arrived in Peru. As in Spain itself, it was not
so much their suspected judaizing, but their visibility and wealth that provoked reactions against them. For decades, the
Inquisition paid New Christians only intermittent attention. In 1595 ten alleged citizens were paraded in an auto de fé;
four of them were relaxed at the stake. In 1600 fourteen judaizers were sentenced and two were burned. In 1605, twenty-
eight were sentenced, three burned. Then, in the summer of 1635, the Inquisition launched one of the major purges in
Latin America history.
The episode began when Antonio de Cordero, a young New Christian in Lima, who used to work at a warehouse, commented
to some customers that he was unable to do business on a Saturday. Reports of his comment reached the Inquisition and he
was brought in for questioning. Under torture, he soon revealed the identities and activities of an extensive network of
crypto-Jews. In the following weeks, sixty-four people were arrested and charged with judaizing. Thus began the sequence
of events known as La Complicidad Grande (The Great Conspiracy) of colonial Peru.
Spain became suspicious, or at least knew of the activities of the Iberian Jews on behalf of England and Holland as early
as 1604. Information about communications between Jews in Holland and their brethren in Mexico and Guatemala came
to the attention of the Suprema between 1596 and 1621. According to the Simancas documents, "in 1640 the tribunals of
Lima and Cartagena reported that in recent autos de fé it has been discovered that many Judaizing Portuguese in the
colonies had correspondence (in code) with synagogues in Holland and the Levante assisting the Dutch and the Turks
with information and money."
The Jews were suspected of plotting to seize the kingdom of Peru from Spain. Henry C. Lea considered that the existence
of a "plot" was deducted from the fact that many Jews had entered Peru, increasing "the numerous band of compatriots
and becoming masters of the commerce of the Kingdom." Lea asserted that mass arrests in Peru and later in New Spain
were the result of disclosures made in torture chambers in Spain between 1625 and 1640.
The attachment of the Jews to Peru was very strong. The Jews aided the Dutch with funds and personnel because they
knew they could not oust the Spaniards by themselves. The Netherlands had granted the Jews religious liberties and
freedom from persecution. The Jews preferred to live under Dutch hegemony than under that of Spain.
In addition to contributing to a war chest against Spain, the Jews also made contributions to support the Jews in the Holy
Land, and to ransom Jews who were being offered for sale by Muslims and pirates.
The result of the exposure of La Complicidad Grande was the great auto in Lima, in January 23, 1639, in which there
were sixty-three Jews, of whom eleven were relaxed at the stake in person, and a twelfth, who had committed suicide
during the trial, was burned in effigy. Among those burnt was Manuel Bautista Pérez, the single wealthiest man in Lima,
and leader of the crypto-Jewish community in New Castile.
The most renowned of all victims of 1639 was Francisco Maldonado de Silva, a surgeon of high repute in Concepcion de
Chile was, ironically, not even part of the conspiracy. While imprisoned he circumcised himself and changed his name to
The auto de fé of 1639 involved only two females, Doña Mayor de Luna , a woman of high social position, and her
daughter, Doña Isabel Antonia. They were sentenced to receive a hundred lashes while walking through the streets, naked
from the waist up. The lashes were punishment for sending secret notes to other Jews in the inquisition cells.
The Great Conspiracy had a very important impact in the future of the Jews in Spanish America. Commerce in New
Castile was disrupted for several years; few of the remaining New Christians were crypto-Jews; most had been burned,
and the very few remaining either left towards the West Indies or to North America. Just as in Spain, in the Spanish
Empire the flame of Judaism disappeared. When it revived again, two and a half centuries later, the flame no longer
would be Sephardic. The Jews in Latin America and the Caribbean islands of this century are not the descendants of the
Sephardi colonial Jews. They are mostly Ashkenazim who migrated to the New World beginning in the 1880s and at an
accelerated pace after 1890. There are some descendants of the colonial Jews, but they are now Catholics or Protestants.
Many admit to having Jewish ancestry.
THE GREAT CONSPIRACY IN NEW SPAIN
There seems to be no relationship between this conspiracy and the one in Peru, but it is probable that the round-up of
Jews in Mexico was triggered by the trials that took place in Lima from 1634 to 1639. It is interesting that various writers
have different theories about the plot in Mexico. However, most agree on the story that two servants overheard four
Portuguese speaking one night in a Mexico City street; they mentioned that with four more men as courageous as them,
they could set fire to the House of the Inquisition and the inquisitors would burn. This story seems to be a total
It is more likely that inquisitors saw the opportunity to use the Jews as scapegoats and a source to enrich themselves
through the confiscation of the wealth of the Jews. According to Vicente Riva Palacio, most of the Inquisition cases
recorded from 1601 to 1700 in Mexico were primarily against Jews and judaizantes for observing the Law of Moses. The
only plot, seems, was to preserve Judaism. There is no indication of any other conspiracy or plot.
THE INQUISITION'S DECLINE
There was a marked change in the Holy Office's attitude toward the Jews after 1665, and a decrease in the severity of
punishments meted out to Jewish heretics. There are several possible reasons for these changes
- Protestantism became a greater threat to Catholicism than Judaism
- The Holy Office served more as a political arm of the Spanish throne than as a defender of the faith
- The disclosure of the venality of some inquisitors in the New World tribunals
- There was a notable decline in the value of the confiscated goods by the tribunals, thus the Inquisition ceased to be a
The number of penitents in the autos de fé of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries was small, jail sentences short,
and fines never included total confiscation of the prisoner's property.
The Inquisition is like most other dark periods of history. It was primarily brought on because of prejudices and greed. When one people
excel within a society and they make up a minority, they historically are labeled as scapegoats for the problems of the rest of the society.
The Renaissance period was obviously the same. It seems strange that in the history of man we still have not found a way to deal with our
own petty jealousies.
Jason L. Slade,
During my research for this essay I was persistently baffled by the question of the survival of the Jewish people throughout the centuries.
"All things are mortal but the Jew; all other forces pass, but he remains. What is the secret of his immortality?"
Mark Twain, 1899
Seymour Liebman states: "The question of whether anti-Semitism is necessary for the survival of Judaism is often raised
in connection with the dissolution or disappearance of Jewish communities. It is a valid question to apply to the New
World colonial Jewish communities and groups."
Stephen Sharot writes: "...where the religion of the dominant group is tolerant of other faiths, the members of the
minority faith are more susceptible to acculturation and assimilation. Where the faith of the dominant group is
doctrinaire or insular, it causes the members of the minority faith to evaluate the validity and 'superiority' of their own
faith... they then seek a greater dedication to it and insulate their religious lives.
Another factor that contributes to the tendency to acculturate is the size of the minority group. "Comparatively small
numbers and a lack of communication with other Jewish communities... make a community particularly malleable to its
... environment." This partially explains the decline of Jewish communities in Mexico, Central America and South
America from 1710 to 1825.
It seems that when persecuted, Jews will fight back and try to survive as Jews no matter what the price. Unfortunately,
when left alone and free to practice their faith, many Jews assimilate.
Looking back at the tremendous efforts of our ancestors to survive during hardships, I can't help but analyze our present
day lives. We enjoy freedom to practice our faith, we live comfortable lives among our gentile neighbors. Sometimes, it's
easy to forget our Judaism to a certain extent.
I feel our greatest challenge today is to survive as Jews in this free world. We owe this to honor the memory of so many
Altabé, David Fintz
Spanish and Portuguese Jewry: Before and After 1492. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Sepher-Hermon Press, 1993.
The Spanish Inquisition. New York: The New American Library, 1965.
Lea, Henry C.
The Inquisition in the Spanish Dependencies, 1908. Chapter The Inquisition in 17th-Century Peru: Cases of Portuguese Judaizers in Modern History
Liebman, Seymour B.
New World Jewry, 1493-1825: Requiem for the Forgotten. New York: Ktav Publishing House, 1982. - The Inquisitors and the Jews in the New World -
Summaries of Procesos, 1500-1810 and Bibliographical Guide. -Coral Gables, Fla: University of Miami Press, 1974.
Sachar, Howard M.- Farewell España - The World of the Sephardim Remembered. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994.
Slade, Jason L. -The Spanish Inquisition. 1996. http://www.iem.rwth-aachen.de/~groening/spanish.html
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